12 8月 Ceramic Foam Filter Sverdlovsk Oblast
Ceramic Foam Filter Sverdlovsk Oblast adopts a new process of new precipitation + microporous ceramic filter element, novel design, simple structure, economical and practical, and can remove solid impurities in molten aluminum.
Ceramic Foam Filter Sverdlovsk Oblast uses polyurethane foam as a carrier, filled with ceramic slurry made of fine powder such as refractory aggregate sintering aids, binders, and water, and then squeezes the slurry
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Ceramic material around the foam fiber.
After the polyurethane is dried, fired, and sintered at a high temperature, it is decomposed by heat, leaving a foam ceramic product, that is, a foam ceramic filter.
The smelters with the lowest production costs are located in the Persian Gulf, Canada, Russia, Iceland, and South Africa. The current production costs per ton are between US$1100-1450.
According to Alcoa, which holds 25% of the shares, the Ma’aden smelter in Saudi Arabia has a capacity of 740 kT/y, which is the lowest cost smelter in the world (approximately US$1050-1100/ton).
The statement is based on their own low-cost alumina, electricity and anode production, as well as other relatively high production.
The author believes that the lowest cost smelter in the world is the smelter located in Canada, which ranks ahead of all Kitimat smelters (owned by Rio Tinto Alcan) because of its low electricity costs.
Compared with 2012, China’s new smelters have also joined the ranks of low-cost smelters, first in the northwestern provinces where electricity costs are low (due to low coal prices) and new low-cost technologies (consumption less than 13,000 kWh) Xinjiang. Per ton of aluminum produced).
As we all know, China’s smelters occupy the top of the cost curve. If you consider that the aluminum price in the Chinese market (Shanghai Stock Exchange) is hundreds of dollars higher, compared with the LME price, the profit of these low-cost smelters in China (approximately US$1,450/ton) is similar to the lowest price in the world. (US$ 1100-1200 /tonne).
The production costs of marginal smelters have also declined in the past four years, from nearly US$3,000/ton to about US$2,250/ton.
Electricity rates vary from region to region. The electricity rate in the Middle East is about US$20/MWh, the US and Europe are about US$35-40/MWh, and China is about US$55/MWh.
Implement electricity price subsidies. Since January 1, 2016, the Chinese government once again reduced the coal-fired on-grid electricity price by RMB 0.03/kWh (US$4.6/MWh).
According to CRU, China’s primary aluminum production based on self-power generation accounted for 62% of 2015’s total output. China’s smelters that have their own power plants have benefited from weak coal prices in recent years.
If coal prices continue to weaken and the power market is no longer restricted, large power end users, including aluminum smelters, will be able to sign better power supply agreements.